John Henry Hauberg (1869-1955), historian, photographer, and friend of the Mesquakies, became an honorary member of the tribe, with the name "Standing Bear." Hauberg interviewed individual Mesquakies, many of them descendants of the Sauk leader Black Hawk. He invited them to participate in the Fort Armstrong Centennial, and later at the annual Pow-wows at Black Hawk State Park in Rock Island. Rocky Island, site of Fort Armstrong, established in 1816, was the recreational and spiritual center of Sauk life. Hauberg's research included the traditions and daily life of the Sauks, the trails they followed, and the homeland from which they unwillingly departed. Traditions & Daily Life

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